Caffey Eying Rare Homer Painting from Forsyth Gallery Collection “Winding the Clock,” by Winslow Homer.

Written by Guest Author Richard Nira

Photo of Dr. Stephen Caffey
TAMU College of Architecture art historian Stephen Caffey

A rare work in Texas A&M’s Forsyth Galleries by Winslow Homer, a preeminent figure in U.S. art history, is receiving its first-ever scholarly attention from Stephen Caffey, assistant professor of architecture at Texas A&M.

“His work captured the complexity of American identity in the late 19th century because, beginning with the Civil War, he was able to represent the conflict between North and South and changing gender roles without taking a stand,” said Caffey.

Photo of Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer

The largely self-taught, Homer (1836-1910) was a versatile artist who worked in a wide range of subjects, styles and mediums.

Last year, after being asked to participate in the Forsyth Gallery brown bag lunch and lecture series, Caffey learned of a Homer piece in the collection and opted to make the painting his lecture topic.

Caffey, who studied Homer’s work extensively in graduate school and is familiar with his catalog, was expecting to see a watercolor from Homer’s Adirondacks series, which depict deer hunting and fishing scenes created for businessmen who felt disconnected from nature because they were working in office buildings on the East Coast.

“As soon as I saw the piece in the Runyon collection my heart leapt because I knew no one had done any scholarship on it at all,” said Caffey. “I didn’t even know it existed.”

Winslow Homer's painting "Winding the Clock"
Winslow Homer’s “Winding the Clock” (click to enlarge)

Caffey has since learned that the piece, “Winding the Clock,” was published only once, prior to an 1881 New York watercolor exhibition.

The painting depicts a single woman in a claustrophobic interior space standing on a stool, blowing the dust off a key she’s holding to a grandfather clock.

“In addition to being technically astonishing because it shows a woman in a white dress with a lot of detail, which is almost impossible to do in a watercolor, it also presents a woman in a way we’d never seen before in American painting,” said Caffey.

Among the topics “Winding the Clock” addresses, he said, are single women in wealthy and well educated households, the potential symbolic meaning of winding the clock and the passage of time.

“The fact that it’s part of the Runyon collection is like finding the Titanic in terms of its potential to improve scholarly understanding of Homer’s work and also to draw attention to the fact that Texas A&M owns this really important and little-known Homer painting,” he said.

Caffey and Nan Curtis, who was director of the Forsyth Galleries at the time, agreed to collaborate on a journal article  which would  detail the painting’s place in the broader series of Homer’s work and do research, partially funded by the Melbern G. Glasscock Center for Humanities Research, investigating its path in private ownership to the Runyon collection.  Since Curtis’ departure, Caffey has continued his research alone.

Caffey‘s effort will involve a trip to the Harvard University library, where the family papers of a Union Civil War officer who originally acquired “Winding the Clock” from Winslow are housed, the Boston Public Library, where a portrait of the officer is located, and Homer’s papers at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art.

After the Civil War, the Union officer told Homer he wanted to buy “Winding the Clock” after seeing it at Homer’s studio, where he was arranging a portrait session. Homer agreed on the condition the sale was completed after the 1881 New York watercolor exhibit.

Caffey said Homer began to attract attention internationally with a painting called “Prisoners From the Front,” displayed at the 1867 World’s Fair in Paris, which drew raves from French art critics.

“It depicts a Union commander with a group of Confederate prisoners,” he said. “In precise and nuanced ways he conveys the complexity and the ambivalence of the lingering tensions inherent after the Civil War.”

Homer’s not saying, continued Caffey, that the Confederate side is “right” or the Union side is “right”.

“What he’s saying is ‘this is a really complicated situation, so let me articulate that complexity in a way that’s permeated with ambivalence,’” said Caffey. “In his work,” he said, ‘I’m not advancing any sort of argument about it, I just want to observe it and present it to you.’”

Many in the U.S. are unaware of Homer’s stature in art history —a reflection, Caffey said, that’s characteristic of the field.

“Art history emphasizes the most obscure, the most esoteric, and most isolated,” he said. “It’s an interesting distortion we really don’t experience in any other type of history, where you always look at what was most popular, most influential, most widely understood.”

Because Homer was working in a traditional academic style, he wasn’t highly regarded by the intelligentsia, the avant-garde,” said Caffey.

The piece was recently on display,  during the grand opening of the newly renovated Forsyth Galleries, located on the 2nd floor of the MSC.

The research project was noted in the Museum Education Monitor, which tracks and records research and resources in museum education with an aim of enhancing the development of theory and practice in the field by academics and museum professionals.

Posted September 2, 2011 in ArchOne: The Newsletter for the Texas A&M College of Architecture. Reprinted with edits by permission of Phillip Rollfing.



The Anatomy of a Cassatt

In May of this year (2012) we sent Mother in a Large Hat Holding her Nude Baby by Mary Cassatt to the conservator to be evaluated and have a small area cleaned.  While at the conservator, multispectral images were taken that allowed us to see beneath the layers of this painting for the first time.  Multispectral imaging, including infrared and ultra violet fluorescence (UVF), have been used by many museums and conservators to help us understand the process by which an artist created their work.  Under drawings (the original sketches), modifications to the art by the artist, as well as later conservation work become clear when using this technique.  With many thanks to Dennis Baltuskonis we bring you these images!  This post is a continuation of The History of a Cassatt which outlines how the painting came to reside in our gallery.

Mother in a Large Hat Holding her Nude Baby, Seen from the Back View by Mary Cassatt, circa 1909, oil on canvas

When allowed to peek beneath the layers with near and far infrared imaging, we can see that Mary Cassatt created a quick sketch of the mother and baby but left the background blank of sketching.  It is also apparent that she made modifications to the hands, neck, hat, and contour of the face during the painting process.  These are the places where the under drawing does not match up with the finished painting.  There is also evidence of a small area of restoration on the mother’s face when viewed with UVF.

Near infrared (700-1000nm) image of Mother in a Large Hat by Mary Cassatt. The dark outlines visible around the mother and baby are the under drawing created by the artist.

In the detail of the left hand with near infrared imaging, you can see that Mary Cassatt decided after sketching to have the fingers of her left hand tuck unto the crook of her arm.

Detail of neck, face, and hat.

On the detail comparison of the neck, face, and hat you can see where Cassatt decided to change the outline of the top part of the hat.  In the under sketch there is no large bow or ribbon that extends up above the crown of the hat.  Cassatt also changed the contour of the neck slightly after sketching.  The posterior line of the neck in the painting is moved slightly back from the original line in the sketch.  You can also see where she modified the tip of the nose slightly.

Face detail with arrows to points of interest.

The under drawing is also very apparent when viewing the “false color” infrared image, which are created by added color to the black and white infrared image to create more contrast and allow more details to become apparent to the naked eye.  The under drawing appears as dark lines outlining the mother and baby.  These pop quite well on the left (viewer’s perspective) edge of the hat, the mother’s arms, and baby.

False color infrared image.

The dark spots on the mother’s face in the UVF image are evidence of later restoration work.  These appear as dark spots in this imaging technique as new paint does not fluoresce in the same manner as the original paint.

UVF detail of the face. Note the dark spots on the cheek. These are evidence of previous restoration work.

I hope you enjoyed taking a peek underneath the layers of this painting.  Mother in a Large Hat Holding her Nude Baby, Seen from the Back View is currently on display at the Forsyth Center Galleries.  If you are in the area stop by for a visit!

Carefully cleaning a spot on the painting!

Women in Art History

Women have always had a place in the arts for the entirety of modern human existence.  Even in prehistory there is documented evidence of women participating in the creation of art.  At Peche Merle Cave, France, 25,000 year old cave paintings of spotted horses are surrounded by images of hand stencils.  These images were analyzed by archaeologist Dean Snow and found that at Peche Merle, and many other prehistoric European caves, a large number of these hand stencils and prints were created by female hands.

Hand stencils created by women and spotted horses at Pech Merle Cave, France. Image courtesy

Even though women have always played a vital role in the creation of art, throughout the historical period female dominated arts (such as textile, fiber, and needle arts) have been dismissed as “crafts” by society.  It is only recently that these arts have been included under the umbrella of fine and applied arts.  It is also important to note that women participated in many forms of fine arts throughout the ancient, Medieval, and Renaissance periods right alongside men.  Women in the arts often have a silent presence in historical accounts.  Sometimes acknowledged, but rarely named until recently.

The Caputi Hydria, a red-figure vase dated to circa 460-450 BCE, showing women painting vases.  The vase was found in a female burial.

During the European Medieval period, female artists worked as illuminators of manuscripts, embroiderers, and as textile artists.  Women were generally only provided the opportunity to become artists by being born into wealthy families or by living in nunneries.  These two subsections of European society allowed women access to resources that the general population would not have had, such as instruction in reading and writing.

Illumination from Liber Scivias, by Saint Hildegard of Bingen, circa 1151/1152. The illustration depicts Hildegard receiving a vision which she relates to her male scribe/secretary.

During the European Renaissance and Baroque periods female artists first rose to international acclaim.  A great number of paintings produced by women survive from the era.  During these eras we also see the first documented existence of female sculptors like Properzia de’ Rossi and Luisa Ignacia Roldán. It was unusual for women to become painters or sculptors, as the apprenticeship period involved living and training with an older artist for 4 to 5 years.  Women who did train in painting were typically taught by a close male relative such as an uncle or father.

Hercule Assommant une Amazone by Properzia de Rossi. Now housed at the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy.

One of the first examples of self-portraiture in oil painting was created by Caterina van Hemessen.  This painting gained Caterina a large amount of attention during her lifetime as it is the first self-portrait of an artist of either gender depicted with the tools of their trade.  It was typical before this point for oil painters to insert themselves into crowd scenes.

Self-portrait by Caterina van Hemessen, 1548, oil on oak board. Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basel, Switzerland (The Basel Art Museum).

The emphasis on the academic study of art made it difficult for women to fully integrate themselves into the world of fine arts.  Women from the middle and lower classes, if they painted or drew, were not considered true artists as they generally lacked formal training.  Only women from wealthy families had the means to provide access to classes and the time to devote to instruction by famous painters.   In 1791 the Salon Exhibition in Paris opened its doors to non-academic painters; however, it was not until 1872 that Elizabeth Jane Gardner became the first woman to win a gold medal at this exhibition.

The Imprudent Girl by Elizabeth Jane Gardner, 1884, oil on canvas.

In the modern era women continue to blaze trails and push boundaries in the art world.  With less emphasis on the requirement of formal training to qualify as an artist, access to this world is now open to people from all walks of life.

Baskets woven by Dat So La Lee (1829-1925), a member of the Washoe People that rose to national prominence in the 1890s.
Grandfather and Grandson at Manzanar Relocation Center by Dorothea Lange, circa 1941-1945.